Couples going through a divorce must decide how to divide their property and debts—or the court will do it for them. Idaho has community property laws providing that all of the assets and debts a couple acquires during marriage belong equally to both spouses. This means that in a divorce, the division of such property—or the value of the property awarded to each spouse—must also be substantially equal.
Some couples are able to agree on how to divide all of their property and debts. Couples who can’t manage this will end up going to court to ask for a decision from an arbitrator or a judge.
Whether you handle your own property division or a court handles it for you, there are three crucial steps to the process:
- determine whether the property (or debt) is community or separate
- determine values for community property, and
- decide how to divide the property.
Learn more about Divorce in Idaho.
Community Property and Separate Property
Under Idaho law, property that one spouse owned alone before the marriage, or acquired by gift or inheritance during the marriage, is that spouse’s separate property--as long as the spouse claiming the property can prove it with financial records or other documents. Separate property also includes assets an owner acquires through the sale or exchange of other separate property. However, income generated by separate property during marriage (rent, for example, or the profits from a separately owned business) will be community property unless the couple specifically agrees in writing that the income is separate property, or the payer of the income conveys it with a statement specifically describing it as separate property.
Spouses may change an asset that was originally separate property into community property, or vice versa. For example, a spouse who was the sole owner of the family home before the marriage could change the title to community property, and a court would consider this evidence that the owner intended to make a gift of the home to the marital community. A spouse can also change a community asset into a separate asset by executing a deed specifically conveying the entire property to the other spouse.
Sometimes a spouse changes a separate asset into a community asset without meaning to by combining—or “commingling”—separate property with marital property. A premarital bank account belonging to one spouse can become community property if the other spouse makes deposits to it; a house owned by one spouse alone can become community property (either in whole or in part) if both spouses pay the mortgage and other expenses.
Many types of assets can be partially community and partially separate, including retirement accounts one spouse contributed to both before and after the marriage, or a business one spouse started before marriage and continued operating after marriage.
Distinguishing community property from separate property can become very complicated, especially if one spouse owns a business or other asset to which the other contributed labor or funds during the marriage. If you have a complex property situation, you may need to consult an attorney for advice. Spouses who can’t decide what belongs to whom will have to let a court decide whether commingled property was a gift to the marriage or whether the original owner should be reimbursed in whole or in part.
Determining Property Value
The spouses—or the court if the spouses can’t agree – generally assign a monetary value to each item of property. Appraisals can help a couple determine the value of real property as well as items like antiques or artwork. Retirement assets can be very difficult to evaluate and may require the assistance of an actuary, C.P.A. or other financial professional.
Dividing the Property
Spouses can divide assets by assigning certain items to each spouse, by allowing one spouse to "buy out" the other’s share of an asset, or by selling assets and dividing the proceeds. They can also agree to hold property together even after the divorce. Although continuing to hold property together isn’t a very attractive option for most people, since it requires a continued financial relationship, some couples agree to keep a family home until children are out of school. Others may keep investment property, hoping that it will increase in value.
The couple must also assign all debt accrued during the marriage, including mortgages, car loans, and credit card debts, to one of the spouses. Couples dividing debts should be aware that their separation agreement or divorce order is not binding on creditors, who may continue trying to collect a community debt from either spouse. If a debt is assigned to one spouse, the other can ask the court to put a lien on that spouse’s separate property as security for payment of the debt. However, it’s a better practice to try to pay off all the marital debts when the divorce is finalized—if you are selling the family home or one spouse is buying the other out, a refinancing of the house loan may provide an opportunity to do this.