Decades ago, courts frowned on prenuptial agreements, believing that they turned a sacred and personal bond into a financial arrangement. Over the years, however, courts realized that marriage and divorce have financial implications for each spouse, and began allowing couples to determine their financial future by entering into agreements that established how parties would split property and finances if they later divorce.
If you or your future spouse are considering a prenuptial agreement, you should understand how they work in your state. This article explains how prenuptial agreements work in Louisiana and how to ensure your agreement is enforceable.
A prenuptial agreement, also called a “matrimonial agreement” in Louisiana, is a contract a couple makes to determine how they will divide their assets and debts if they divorce or one spouse dies. The agreement becomes effective when the couple gets married.
There are several reasons a couple may want to enter into a prenuptial agreement. While prenuptial agreements are often considered “unromantic,” studies have shown that they increase marital happiness by giving both spouses certainty about their financial future, allowing them to focus more on their existing relationship.
Some people want a prenuptial agreement to protect their assets when marrying someone with significantly less wealth. People who have children from previous relationships often use these agreements to make sure their children's right to inherit is protected from claims by the new spouse. Others may want the prenuptial agreement for tax considerations, or to plan their division of property and alimony ahead of time, especially when one spouse plans not to work during the marriage.
In Louisiana, a married couple is automatically part of the “legal matrimonial regime,” which means that if the couple divorces, the court will distribute property according to Louisiana law. Couples can opt out of the legal regime by signing a prenuptial agreement, which places them in the “contractual regime” and means the couple's agreement will determine who gets what, even if the law would require a different division absent a prenuptial agreement.
Couples may also choose the “separate property regime,” which means that each spouse uses, enjoys and disposes of property without the consent of the other spouse.
Spouses may enter into a prenuptial agreement regarding any issues that are not covered by the law, but usually, the agreement covers things like:
Prenuptial agreements may not include any of the following:
Prenuptial agreements can never determine child custody or child support.
The right to child support belongs to the child, not to the parent receiving child support. A parent has no authority to contract away the child’s right to be supported financially by both parents.
Child custody is determined either by the court at the time the parents separate, or by the parents’ agreement at the time they separate, with the court’s approval. The court will either decide or approve child custody based on what is in the child’s best interest at the time the parents separate.
In Louisiana, the couple must put its prenuptial agreement in writing, and both spouses must sign the contract. The spouses are required to sign the agreement before a notary, and two witnesses must also sign it. The couple must collect all signatures before the marriage.
You must also record the agreement in your parish’s conveyance office. If you and your spouse live in different parishes, you need to record the agreement in the conveyance office of each parish. Also, if the agreement deals with real property, you need to record the agreement in the parish where the property is located.
Louisiana courts typically enforce prenuptial agreements.
The court will invalidate (throw out) the agreement if both spouses, a notary, and two witnesses haven’t signed it before the marriage.
The court will also invalidate the agreement if it doesn’t meet the rules for Louisiana contracts, including:
If you are considering signing a prenuptial agreement, you should consult a Louisiana family law attorney for advice.