Domestic violence is a very serious problem. Each year, thousands of domestic violence ("DV") cases are filed. If you are a victim of domestic violence, it's important that you get help right away. For more information, see Leaving an Abusive Relationship: How to Protect Yourself and Temporary Restraining Orders.
If you've been falsely accused of domestic violence, this article may provide answers to some of the questions you have, but you should hire an experienced attorney to represent you at trial.
A Temporary Restraining Order ("TRO") is the first step in a domestic violence case. TROs are usually obtained through an ex parte court proceeding. Ex parte means the "plaintiff" or "petitioner" (person claiming to be a victim of domestic violence) may ask for a court hearing without notifying the "defendant" or "respondent" (the person accused of domestic violence).
At the TRO hearing, the plaintiff may testify or bring in other evidence of domestic violence. There is usually a court reporter present who will record what is said. If the court finds sufficient evidence, it will issue a TRO against the defendant. A police officer or sheriff will typically serve (deliver) the TRO to the defendant within 24 hours of the hearing.
A TRO prohibits the defendant from engaging in certain behaviors on a temporary basis. The defendant will be restrained from having contact with the plaintiff and prohibited from returning to his or her home if it's shared with the plaintiff. In custody cases, TROs may also prevent defendants from visiting their children.
TROs usually expire within seven to 14 days. In order to extend a TRO, the plaintiff must file a complaint for domestic violence and ask for a court hearing where both sides can tell their stories.
Although form names may vary from state to state, typically, plaintiffs must fill out a "Confidential Victim Information Sheet" and another form called the "Victim's Voluntary Statement Detailing Prior History of Domestic Violence." The Victim Information Sheet will contain critical information, including whether the plaintiff was injured, whether photographs were taken, and whether there was any property damage. The plaintiff must include a complete description of the incident and explain the need for a longer-term restraining order.
A court staff person uses the information contained in these forms to prepare a Domestic Violence (DV) complaint. The complaint will indicate the date the alleged incident occurred and the plaintiff's claims regarding what happened. A police officer or sheriff must serve the defendant with a copy of the complaint, which will include the date set for the hearing.
If, after the hearing, the court finds that the defendant committed domestic violence, it may grant the plaintiff a more permanent restraining order prohibiting the defendant from initiating any contact for a number of years.
Domestic violence claims can result in severe legal consequences for defendants including:
A finding of domestic violence can also affect alimony and child custody.
Because a DV hearing is generally held within ten to 30 days after the complaint is filed, you may want to ask the court to continue the hearing date so you have enough time to prepare your defense. Be aware that, if the court grants your continuance, it may also extend the TRO until the new hearing date.
Depending on the state, a DV complaint must be based on one or more acts of domestic violence, which might include:
If the DV charge is based on conduct that doesn't fit any of the above, a judge may dismiss the case. For example, if you slipped up and used a few choice words to refer to your spouse's new partner, you probably haven't committed domestic violence. If, on the other hand, you struck your spouse or partner, that most likely constitutes an assault.
A judge may dismiss a DV case that lacks "subject matter jurisdiction." This is just a fancy way of saying that the two people involved in the DV case—the plaintiff and the defendant—must fall within one of the legally protected relationships, such as:
States vary in their definitions of protected relationships. You (or your lawyer) should analyze the facts of a DV case to make sure the current or former relationship is covered by the law.
There are generally only two defenses for DV cases: self-defense and de minimis infractions. In many DV cases, the plaintiff may suffer injuries because the defendant was legitimately defending against imminent bodily harm.
Under the doctrine of self-defense, a defendant may be justified in the use of physical force toward the plaintiff, if the defendant reasonably believed that such force was necessary to protect against the plaintiff's use of unlawful force.
Typically, the second-best defense is that the alleged act of domestic violence is a de minimis infraction, which is minor conduct that is too trivial to be considered a criminal offense.
The time frame from the filing of the DV complaint to the actual trial is usually less than 30 days. Therefore, it's difficult to conduct full "discovery" (a legal process by which either party can obtain information and documents from each other and third parties).
Although DV laws don't typically contain specific provisions for discovery, the principles of due process and fair play require that all discovery methods be available to DV defendants. Therefore, you (or your attorney) should ask the plaintiff for the following documents:
It's also important to get relevant documents from the police department and other third parties so you can see what the plaintiff has said about the DV claims. Ask for the following:
If you have questions about defending against a criminal domestic violence case, you should contact a criminal defense attorney in your area. See Domestic Violence Laws and Penalties from our partner site, www.CriminalDefenseLawyer.com, for more information on criminal laws and penalties for domestic violence.