Child support is a court order for a certain amount of money divorced or separated parents must pay each month to help cover their children's living expenses. In California, the law sets out specific guidelines that courts must follow when determining how much child support parents must pay.
Under the California guidelines, a judge will consider factors such as each parent's income, the number of children, and the percentage of time each parent spends with the children. Courts will generally use a computer program that incorporates these factors to calculate child support.
This article answers some Frequently Asked Questions regarding child support, including how it's determined, some of the exceptions to the guidelines, how long a parent's duty to pay child support lasts in California, and where to get help. If you have specific questions about your child support case, you should contact an experienced family law attorney for help.
Each parent's net disposable income is used to calculate child support. To figure out net disposable income, the court will first determine gross annual income, subtract certain deductions, and divide that by 12 for the monthly amount.
For the purposes of child support, gross income includes:
Gross income does not include need-based public assistance benefits (such as CalWORKS, General Assistance, or Supplemental Security Income) or child support for children from another relationship that one parent actually receives.
After computing the gross income, the court will deduct the following to determine net income:
Sometimes, parents try to avoid child support by intentionally becoming unemployed (quitting a job) or underemployed (reducing hours). Courts don't like this behavior. If a court finds that a parent has done this, a judge may "impute" income to that parent. In other words, the court will consider the earning ability of the other parent and use the amount of income he or she could earn, instead of the money they actually earn, to calculate child support.
To assign income that the parent is not actually earning, the court will need to find that the parent has the ability and opportunity to work. In other words, before imputing income, the court will need proof that there are available jobs for which the parent is qualified.
Timeshare is the amount of time each parent has primary responsibility for the children. To account for the time when the children are in school or daycare, the court will determine which parent has primary responsibility by considering factors such as who picks up the children if they get sick, who provides transportation to and from school, who pays education costs, and who attends school functions.
Because parents often share in these responsibilities, determining timeshare is not always straightforward, and the court has discretion to calculate the percentage based on how involved each parent is.
The law sets out a somewhat complicated mathematical formula to calculate child support. Courts will frequently use a computer program which does the calculation. For more information on calculating child support in California, take a look at our article, Calculating Child Support Under California Guidelines.
Not necessarily. In some cases, the court has the discretion to order a child support amount that is different from the calculated guideline amount.
First, the court can make a low-income adjustment by ordering a lower amount of child support if a parent's net disposable monthly income is less than a certain amount (currently $1755, but subject to yearly adjustment), unless it would be unfair or inappropriate to do so under the circumstances.
Second, the court has discretion to make an order above or below guideline if it's in the best interest of the children. Some examples of situations where the court may order an amount other than guideline are:
Anytime the court makes an order above or below guideline, it must explain the reasons for not following the guideline.
There are certain child-related expenses that courts can add on to the basic guideline child support calculation. The law requires that the court must add on expenses for uninsured health care, and for child care which allows the parents(s) to work or attend training necessary for employment.
The court also has the discretion to add on expenses for the children's education or special needs and for travel expenses related to visitation.
In general, the court will split these additional expenses between the parents equally. However, if there is a significant difference in the parents' incomes, the court may order that each parent pays an amount in proportion to their income.
Yes, parents can make their own agreement for child support and submit it to the court for review and approval. The agreement must state the following:
If the court finds that the child support amount is in the child's best interest, it will approve the agreement and issue a child support order.
In general, parents have a duty to pay child support until their children are 18 years old. There are some exceptions:
Either parent can ask the court to modify a child support order if there has been a change of circumstances, such as an increase or decrease in income or a change in timeshare.
If the parents had an agreement to pay child support that was below the guideline amount, the court can modify it without a change of circumstances. If the parents' agreement is above the guideline, there does need to be a change of circumstances to modify it to a lesser amount.
Whether you are asking for child support or responding to a request for child support, there are resources available for help with your case. Many counties have a family law facilitator's office where you may be able to get help with your paperwork.
Click here for information on the family law facilitator in your county. Your local Department of Child Support Services office can also help you. For information on enforcing child support orders, see Child Support Enforcement in California.
California child support laws can be found in the California Family Code Sections 4050-4076. For more information on California divorce and family law issues, see our section on California family law.